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This is about a fictional representation of a real world event

Congress of BerlinEdit

HistoryEdit

CongressOfBerlin1878

The map of Europe was redrawn by the Congress of Berlin (1878).

The Congress of Berlin was held in 1878, following the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878. Essentially the problem, as the rest of Europe saw it, was that the Balkans region was unstable and the Ottoman Empire (the "sick man of Europe") was waning in power and unable to keep the peace. The various minorities were clamoring either for independence or secession, and with Russia eager to champion their cause the spectre of Europe being dragged into further wars seemed entirely possible. The various states invited to Berlin argued: some felt that a strong Ottoman Empire served as a check for Russia, to prevent it from expanding not only into the Balkans but also the Orient. Others felt that appeasing the Russians and the various Balkans peoples was the only way to prevent future war.

In the end, a compromise was reached: Cyprus was ceded to the British, and Bosnia to Austria-Hungary. The Bulgarians were allowed to become a principality under Ottoman control, while other countries (Romania, Serbia and Montenegro) had some of their lands returned and were given formal independence. Ultimately, the Congress didn't achieve its goal. Nationalism in the Balkans increased, setting the stage for the Balkan Wars and ultimately for World War 1.


What Exists in PDM and VanillaEdit

Curiously, there isn't anything regarding the Berlin Congress in Vanilla Victoria 2. The Balkans countries are indeed present either as cores (for Bosnia, Bulgaria and Albania) or as independent countries (Serbia, Montenegro and Greece) with cores on Ottoman territory... but rarely would you see a game where any of those countries actually revolted or Romania came to be. Typically the Ottoman Empire would remain united throughout the entire game, unless something truly disastrous happened.

In PDM, there are separate event chains for the Crimean War as well as the Romanian War of Independence that followed it. Eventually, if the Ottoman Empire has been weakened enough (which is often the case), the Congress of Berlin event chain will begin-- leading to the one of two possible outcomes, either of which prompts the redrawing of the map in the Balkans.

How it BeginsEdit

If the Ottoman Empire has fallen far enough, eventually "the Eastern Question" event (event id# 90060) will arise. It addresses the idea that the Balkans situation needs to be stabilized, and that a convening of European powers (in addition to Russia and the Ottoman Empire) will be required to resolve it. The country either then has the option of agreeing to host the Congress (in their capital, so it need not be named "the Congress of Berlin" if the event does not occur for Germany) or refusing. If everyone refuses, the event will never occur.

  • Text: "The Ottoman Empire has been in slow decline for much of the last century, but never has this been more apparent than in recent years. The Empire's hold on the Balkans is weakening, and this threatens to upset the entire balance of power in Eastern Europe as Russia and other countries will inevitably be drawn into the conflict. Many in the $COUNTRY_ADJ$ government feel that it falls on us to call the powers of Europe together and negotiate a settlement that will restore some semblance of stability to the area."
  • Requirements:
    • It is either after 1870 or the Crimean War event chain has already occurred.
    • Your capital is located in Europe and you are a greater power.
    • You are not Russia or the Ottoman Empire.
    • The Ottoman Empire is NOT a greater power, is at peace, owns part of the Balkans and must have one of the following conditions true:
      • it is not a secondary power in addition to not being a greater power
      • it has been disarmed by a war
      • it has at least 20 provinces in revolt
      • it has lost at least 20% of its national cores
      • Bulgaria exists and is not an Ottoman vassal
      • Romania exists and is not an Ottoman vassal
  • MTTH: 24 months
    • x0.5 if the Ottoman Empire has more than 20 provinces in revolt
    • x2 if the Ottoman Empire is indeed still a secondary power
    • x0.8 if the Ottoman Empire is not a secondary power
    • x5 if the year is before 1860, after which the MTTH drops until the year is after 1880
  • Option 1: "We will host the Congress."
    • +20 Prestige
    • initiates the "support Ottomans" and "support Balkans" variables and starts the event chain.
    • sends the "Call for Congress" event (id# 90062) to the Ottoman Empire and (id # 90063) to Russia.
    • any country that is a greater power and has its capital in Europe (other then Russia and the Ottoman Empire) will get the "Call for Congress" event (id #90064).
  • Option 2: "This is unnecessary."
    • -5 Prestige
    • You will not receive the event again, but other European greater powers still can.


Deciding the Outcome of the CongressEdit

The event that Russia and the Ottoman Empire receive are just to inform them that the Congress is occurring and that they're invited: Russia gains +10 Prestige immediately while the Ottoman Empire loses -10 Prestige for the ignomity of having this even occur. For everyone else, they will be required to decide between "support the Balkans" (which is essentially supporting Russia) and "keep the Ottoman Empire strong" (the historical result of the Congress). They can also decide not to go at all (which is rare), in which case they will receive no benefits (or negatives) from the Congress. This is the "Call for Congress" event (id #90064):

  • Text: "We have received word from $FROMCOUNTRY$ that they intend to hold a congress of European powers in their capital to discuss the ability of the Ottomans to maintain stability in the Balkans. Some feel we should favor keeping the Ottoman Empire strong, in the interest of preventing the Russians from expanding into the Middle East. This could potentially improve our relations with the Ottomans, as well. Others believe stability in the Balkans should be the priority, even though this might come at the expense of the Ottomans and our relationship with them. Still others feel we should not take part in this veiled attempt at dismembering a sovereign nation."
  • Option 1: "The Ottoman Empire must be kept strong."
    • +10 Prestige
    • Increases the "support Ottomans" variable by 1.
    • The nation will attend the Congress.
    • There are various factors which affect an AI nation selecting this, such as having an alliance with Russia or any of the Balkans nations, being an enemy of the Ottoman Empire, having good or poor relations with either Russia or the Ottoman Empire, etc.
  • Option 2: "Stability in the Balkans is most important."
    • +10 Prestige
    • Increases the "support Balkans" variable by 1.
    • The nation will attend the Congress.
    • As above, there are various factors which affect an AI nation selecting this.
  • Option 3: "We will not take part in this."
    • -10 Prestige

Once the nations have all made their choices, the Congress is going to happen-- even if the conditions in the Ottoman Empire have improved. Two mutually exclusive events for the Ottoman Empire begin a countdown as to which is going to occur first-- one is the "Support the Balkans" option and the other is the "Support the Empire" option. Both have an MTTH of 36 months, halved for every point of the variable supporting that side. So if the count is even, it's a 50/50 chance of either happening. Otherwise it's weighted heavily in one direction or the other.


The Ottoman Empire is SupportedEdit

SupportEmpire

This is an example of the "Support Ottomans" result of the Congress. It is the historical version.

If the "Support the Empire" option wins out, the Ottoman Empire will receive the "Demands of the Congress" event (id# 90067). This is the historical option, and will have the following effects:
  • Text: "Our delegates have returned from the Congress in $FROMCOUNTRY$ with mixed news: though the consensus reached was that $COUNTRY$ needed to be kept strong, they still placed numerous demands upon us that would see the political map of the Balkans rearranged. If we choose to defy the European edict, we could be facing wars from many fronts."
  • Option 1: "We will abide by their demands."
    • Immediately lose cores on Dobrujda, Bosnia, Bulgaria, Southern Serbia, Montenegro, Albania and Thessalia states. Also lose cores on Crete.
    • If Romania, Wallachia or Moldavia are vassals, they are released.
    • Constanta and Tulcea are ceded to Romania or Wallachia (whichever exists).
    • If Serbia has been annexed, it is released (with Northern Serbia only).
    • Nis and Leskovac are ceded to Serbia.
    • Cetinje, Niksic and Ulcinj are ceded to Montenegro.
    • If Bulgaria does not exist, it is released as a vassal. It is ceded any owned provinces in Bulgaria state as well as both Sofia and Silistre provinces (whether it's a vassal or not).
    • If Austria or Austria-Hungary is attending the Congress, they are ceded Bosnia region. They will immediately release Bosnia as a vassal. If neither is attending the congress, Bosnia is released as an independent country and Russia is given +200 influence in it.
    • If the United Kingdom is attending the Congress, they are ceded Cyprus region. This will increase relations with them by +100 and immediately create an alliance.
    • If Greece exists, it is given Crete. If not, then Crete is released.
    • All countries that attended the Congress receive the "Ottomans Agree to the Demands" event (id #90069).
    • +3 militancy to all Turkish culture soldiers and officers.
  • Option 2: "Never! The Ottoman Empire will not be ordered about!"
    • -20 Prestige
    • -50 relations with any greater power that attended the Congress.
    • Every country that attended the Congress receives the "Ottomans Defy the Congress!" event (id# 90071). Details are located below.
    • Any pop that is Bulgarian, Serb, Romanian or Greek will immediately get +6 militancy and +4 consciousness. All provinces that have a majority culture of Bulgarian, Serb, Romanian or Greek will receive the Nationalist Agitation modifier for 5 years.
    • -3 militancy to all Turkish culture soldiers and officers.

Countries that attended the Congress will receive the following:

  • +20 Prestige
  • The host of the Congress has relations with Russia reduced by -50.
  • Any country that isn't Russia will receive +50 relations with the Ottoman Empire, +30 diplomatic influence in Bulgaria and +30 diplomatic influence with Serbia.
  • Russia receives -100 relations and -100 diplomatic influence with the Ottoman Empire, +200 diplomatic influence with Romania, +200 relations and +100 diplomatic influence with Bulgaria.
  • Austria (or Austria-Hungary) receives +100 diplomatic influence with Bosnia.
  • Any national core currently owned by the Ottoman Empire will be returned.


The Balkans is SupportedEdit

SupportBalkans

This is an example of the "Support Balkans" result of the Congress.

If the "Support the Balkans" option wins out, the Ottoman Empire will receive a different "Demands of the Congress" event (id# 90068). This is a version where much more of the Balkans is lost, and Russia gains a great deal of influence:
  • Text: "Our delegates have returned from the Congress in $FROMCOUNTRY$ with disheartening news: despite considerable dissension among those attending, a consesus was reached that creating stability in the Balkans is more important than Ottoman interests and sovereignty. The demands are humiliating, and will see us losing much of the Balkans if we agree. If we defy the Congress, however, we could be facing war from many fronts."
  • Option 1: "We will abide by their demands."
    • Immediately lose cores on Dobrujda, Bosnia, Bulgaria, Rumelia, Southern Serbia, Montenegro, Albania, Thessalia, North Macedonia and West Macedonia states. Also lose cores on Crete and Dodecanese province.
    • If Romania still owns Izmail, it is ceded to Russia (for the AI only).
    • If Romania, Wallachia or Moldavia are vassals, they are released.
    • Constanta and Tulcea are ceded to Romania or Wallachia (whichever exists).
    • If Bulgaria is a vassal, it is released. All owned provinces in Bulgaria and Rumelia state are ceded to Bulgaria, as is Silistre province.
    • All Montenegro cores are returned to Montenegro. It is freed if vassaled.
    • All Bosnian cores are returned to Bosnia. It is freed if vassaled.
    • All Serbian cores are returned to Serbia. It is freed if vassaled.
    • If Greece is a vassal, it is freed. If Greece does not exist and Athens is owned, all of Greece is released as a vassal. If Greece already owned Thessalia, then it is ceded both the West Macedonia and Dodecanese regions. If not, then it is ceded Thessalia and Dodecanese regions. Crete is also given to Greece.
    • If Greece is a greater power and attending the Congress, it will also be ceded both the West Macedonia and East Macedonia regions.
    • If Albania does not exist, it will be released as a vassal.
    • All countries that attended the Congress receive the "Ottomans Agree to the Demands" event (id #90070).
    • +6 militancy to all Turkish culture soldiers and officers.
  • Option 2: "Never! The Ottoman Empire will not be ordered about!"
    • -20 Prestige
    • -50 relations with any greater power that attended the Congress.
    • Every country that attended the Congress receives the "Ottomans Defy the Congress!" event (id# 90071). Details are located below.
    • Any pop that is Bulgarian, Serb, Romanian or Greek will immediately get +6 militancy and +4 consciousness. All provinces that have a majority culture of Bulgarian, Serb, Romanian or Greek will receive the Nationalist Agitation modifier for 5 years.
    • -3 militancy to all Turkish culture soldiers and officers.

Countries that attended the Congress will receive the following:

  • +20 Prestige
  • The host of the Congress has relations with Russia increased by +50.
  • Any country that isn't Russia will receive -75 relations and +50 diplomatic influence with the Ottoman Empire, +30 diplomatic influence with Bosnia and +30 diplomatic influence in Bulgaria.
  • Russia receives -50 relations and -100 diplomatic influence with the Ottoman Empire, +200 diplomatic influence with Romania, +50 diplomatic influence with Serbia, +100 relations and +200 diplomatic influence with Bulgaria (an alliance is automatically formed with Bulgaria as well).
  • Austria (or Austria-Hungary) receives +200 diplomatic influence with Bosnia and +30 diplomatic influence with Montenegro. An alliance is automatically created with Bosnia.
  • Italy, Two Sicilies or Sardinia receives +100 diplomatic influence with Albania.
  • the United Kingdom receives +100 diplomatic influence with Greece.
  • Any national core currently owned by the Ottoman Empire will be returned.


What if the Ottoman Empire Refuses to Comply?Edit

If the Ottoman Empire defies the Congress, then all countries who attended receive an event (id# 90071) that informs them of this and does the following:

  • -20 Prestige
  • -200 relations with the Ottoman Empire
  • -200 diplomatic influence with the Ottoman Empire
  • any current alliance with the Ottoman Empire is broken
  • receives a Humiliate CB against the Ottoman Empire for 24 months.

Also, any country that attended the Congress has access to the "Free Balkans" CB. This is a wargoal that is similar to the Free Peoples wargoal except that it costs 0 infamy and can be used to free any province that is Greek, Serbian, Romanian, Montenegrin, Bulgarian, Albanian or Bosnian. The country only needs to still be a greater power in order to use it.

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