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The Crimean WarEdit

HistoryEdit

Crimeanwar

Detail of Franz Roubaud's panoramic painting The Siege of Sevastopol (1904)

Historically the Crimean War was fought between Russia and an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France, the United Kingdom and Sardinia. It began when France attempted to exert authority over Christian holy sites in the Levant (controlled by the Ottomans)... authority which had traditionally rested with the Russians since the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca in 1774. Ottoman submission to French demands caused the Russians to declare itself the true "Defender of Eastern Christians" and intervene in 1853, bringing the French (and the British, who feared losing influence over the Levantine trade routes to India) to bear and starting a three-year war that ended in Russian defeat... the first real setback for the great Russian Empire. Peace ended with the Treaty of Paris in 1856, which unified Moldavia and Wallachia into Romania-- an Ottoman vassal.


What Exists in PDM & VanillaEdit

PDM has an entire event chain devoted to the Crimean War, expanding on what exists in Vanilla Victoria II (which is, admitted, not very much). In Vanilla, Russia has a decision to declare itself the Defender of Eastern Christiandom-- giving it a prestige-adding modifier. That will send an event to other European great powers, which can result in them demanding Russia abandon the modifier on pain of a free Humiliate CB. But that's it. No war with the Ottoman Empire, and war being much more likely with another European ower over a modifier that doesn't really do much. PDM adds a decision for France to start the chain by demanding authority in the Holy Land, models Russia's intervention and offers two possible outcomes for the Treaty of Paris in the aftermath.

How it BeginsEdit

As in history, the Crimean War events begins with France's "Claim Authority in the Holy Land" decision:

  • They must have researched State & Government (and be at peace)
  • The Ottoman Empire must be at peace, own Jerusalem and not be a Greater Power

Since the Ottomans must have reclaimed Jerusalem from the Egyptians during the Oriental Crisis, and don't always accomplish this, the Crimean War isn't going to occur in every game. Sometimes it will happen, but happens very late... particularly if it takes a while for the Ottomans to drop out of GP status or if they get Palestine back not through the "Fall of Cairo" event but by taking state-by-state in successive wars. If the Congress of Berlin happens first, then the Crimean War will never occur.

This decision grants France some prestige and sends the "Sovereign Authority in the Holy Land" event (id #97500) to the Ottoman Empire:

  • Text: "The French ambassador has arrived with the following demand: they wish the Ottoman government to recognize them as the sovereign authority over the Holy Land in Palestine, turning control over all Christian sites to the French. The Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca signed with Russia in 1774 states that they are the sole protector of Eastern Christians, and should we agree to the French demands it will almost surely lead to conflict with the Russians."
  • Option 1: "Russia protects the Holy Land, not France."
    • +10 Prestige
    • Russia gets +10 Prestige, -50 relations with France
    • France receives the "Ottoman Empire Refuses our Claim" event (id# 97501)
  • Option 2: "We will agree to the French demands."
    • Sets the "france_protector_of_eastern_christians" global flag
    • -10 Prestige
    • France receives the "Ottomans Have Agreed" event (id# 97504)
    • Russia receives the "Sovereign Authority in the Holy Land" event (id# 97503)


The "Ottoman Empire Refuses our Claim" event (id #97501) for France:

  • Text: "The Ottoman government has refused our demand, stating that the 1774 Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca grants Russia authority over Eastern Christians and not France. More than likely they simply fear what the Russians will do. A show of force combined with the enticement of a protective alliance might compel them, though that will certainly cause friction with the Russians and there are some who say we should discontinue this venture now while we still have the chance."
  • Option 1: "Pressure them into accepting."
    • the Ottoman Empire receives the "French Escalation" event (id #97502)
    • -100 relations with Russia, leave any alliance with Russia
  • Option 2: "Abandon our claim before this goes further."
    • -50 Prestige
    • -50 relations with the Ottoman Empire


The "French Escalation" event (id #97502) for the Ottoman Empire:

  • Text: "The French are not willing to abandon their claims to the Holy Land. There have been several demonstrations of naval force along our coast, and these have been combined with offers of protection against Russian retaliation. If we agree, we have a friend in France but almost certainly war with the Russians. If we refuse, very likely we will have a war with France on our hands. Which would we prefer?"
  • Option 1: "We must give in to the French."
    • set the "france_protector_of_eastern_christians" global flag
    • -20 Prestige
    • create alliance with France
    • France receives the "Ottomans Have Agreed" event (id# 97504)
    • Russia receives the "Sovereign Authority in the Holy Land" event (id# 97503)
  • Option 2: "Never! Let them come, if they dare!"
    • sets the "refused_french_claim" country flag
    • +5 Prestige
    • +50 relations with Russia
    • France: -100 influence in the Ottoman Empire, -200 relations with the Ottoman Empire, ends any existing alliance with the Ottoman Empire
    • France receives a Cut Down to Size CB against the Ottoman Empire for 24 months


The "Sovereign Authority in the Holy Land" event (id #97503) for Russia:

  • Text: "The French have successfully pressured the Ottoman Empire into accepting their claim of authority over Christian holy sites in Palestine, authority which has traditionally belonged to us ever since the 1774 Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca. This is a breach of the treaty and a threat to Russian interests in the Holy Land."
    • -200 influence in the Ottoman Empire
    • -200 relations with the Ottoman Empire


The "Ottomans Have Agreed" event (id #97504) for France:

  • Text: "The Ottoman Empire has agreed that the French and the Roman Catholic Church should be the supreme Christian authority in the Holy Land, and have turned over control of Christian holy places-- including the keys to the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem. This is in contravention to the Ottoman treaty with Russia, and will no doubt lead to conflict, but is at the same time a boon to our prestige."
    • +20 Prestige
    • Current sphere leader of the Ottoman Empire (who isn't France or Russia) loses 100 influence and 25 relations with the Ottoman Empire.
    • +200 diplomatic influence with the Ottoman Empire
    • +200 relations with the Ottoman Empire


The "French Authority in the Holy Land" event (id #97505) for the Ottoman Empire if they have previously refused to submit to the French demands:

  • Text: "Through a combination of military and political pressure, we now have no choice but to accept French claims in the Holy Land."
  • Trigger:
    • has the "refused_french_claim" country flag
    • at peace
    • is not a greater power
    • owns Jerusalem
    • is either in the French sphere or has a truce with France and is disarmed
  • MTTH: 10 days
  • Effects:
    • clears the "refused_french_claim" country flag
    • sets the "france_protector_of_eastern_christians" global flag
    • -10 Prestige
    • France receives the "Ottomans Have Agreed" event (id# 97504)
    • Russia receives the "Sovereign Authority in the Holy Land" event (id# 97503)


The "French Authority in the Holy Land" event (id #97506) for the United Kingdom:

  • Text: "In what is perhaps a foolish move, the French have pressured the Turks into accepting their sovereign authority over the Holy Land in Palestine... authority which has traditionally rested with the Russians since the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca. The question simply remains whether we should interfere. While holy sites are not our concern, trade routes through the Levant lead to India... and a Russian war with the Turks could directly threaten our interests."
  • Trigger:
    • the "france_protector_of_eastern_christians" global flag is set
    • not at war with Russia or the Ottoman Empire
    • the Treaty of Paris decisions have not fired
  • MTTH: 10 days
  • Option 1: "We intend to stay out of the conflict."
    • -10 Prestige
    • -50 diplomatic influence with the Ottoman Empire
    • +50 relations with Russia
  • Option 2: "We will protect our interests."
    • sets the "england_protecting_interests" country flag
    • +5 Prestige
    • +100 diplomatic influence with the Ottoman Empire
    • +100 relations with the Ottoman Empire
    • -50 relations with Russia
    • leave any current alliance with Russia


The Defender of Eastern ChristiansEdit

War doesn't immediately begin between Russia and the Ottoman Empire... though it may. There's nothing stopping Russia from attacking, and indeed the AI might decided to do so on account of the fact that they now have poor relations with the Ottomans and no alliance. Regardless of what else it does, the Russians will receive the "Defender of Eastern Christians" decision at some point after the Ottomans submit to the French claims in the Holy Land:

  • Requirements:
    • Russia is a greater power
    • is a monarchy of some kind
    • the "france_protector_of_eastern_christians" global flag has been set
    • is at peace
    • does not currently have a truce with the Ottoman Empire
    • has not recently lost a war (meaning they have not failed to enforce a wargoal in the last 5 years)
  • Effect:
    • sets the "crimea_has_happened" global flag
    • adds the "Protector of Eastern Christendom" country modifier (giving them a +0.05 modifier to Prestige, as well as access to the "Free Balkans" CB-- which is a 0-infamy Free Peoples wargoal that only applies to Southern Slavic cultures and may only be used against the Ottoman Empire)
    • any Orthodox pops lose 3 militancy and gain 20% jingoism
    • any European greater power who is not the Ottoman Empire, France or currently allied with Russia will receive the "The Eastern Question" event (id# 19030)
    • If either Wallachia or Moldavia exist and are Ottoman vassals, they receive the "Nationalist Agitation" province modifier on all their provinces
    • Russia receives a Cut Down to Size CB against the Ottoman Empire, and immediately begins a war against them with both Cut Down to Size and Humiliate as the wargoals (note that it receives no infamy for the Cut Down to Size wargoal, but does for the Humiliate)


A war will obviously ensue, and can take many forms that need not obey history at all-- France might decide not to come to the Ottoman's aid. The United Kingdom might not get involved, or might even take Russia's side. Russia might add extra wargoals (particularly if it retains the "Protector of Eastern Christendom" modifier) or might have other countries declare war on it in the meantime... particularly if they have received the "The Eastern Queston" event (id #19030):

  • Text: "With the Ottoman Empire fading as a Great Power, people have instead begun referring to this once great nation as 'The Sick Man of Europe'. Nationalism and revolts in the Empire's non-turkish provinces are growing concerns for the Ottoman State, and coupled with the relative backwardness of the Empire in comparison to the states of Western Europe, many now seem to believe that the Empire's demise is only a question of time. Furthermore, the reputed harsh treatment of Christians in the Ottoman State have led to Russia declaring itself the protector of Eastern Christendom. Should we accept the Russian encroachments on Ottoman authority?"
  • Option 1: "Russia must renounce the title."
    • +5 Prestige
    • +30 relations with the Ottoman Empire
    • Russia receives the "Protectorate Denied!" event (id# 19031)
    • More likely if relations are poor with Russia or good with the Ottomans, and less likely if relations are good with Russia or poor with the Ottomans
  • Option 2: "We have other concerns."
    • -15 Prestige


The "Protectorate Denied!" event (id# 19031) for Russia:

  • Text: "$FROMCOUNTRY$ has denied our legitimate assumption of the title of Supreme Authority and Protector of Eastern Christendom within the Ottoman Empire. We can maintain the title in spite of $FROMCOUNTRY$'s protests, but the world would view this as a legitimate reason for war on $FROMCOUNTRY$'s part. If we were to lose a future war against them our new title would be lost."
  • Option 1: "The title is ours!"
    • FROM receives a Humiliate CB against Russia as well as a notification event (and -5 Prestige)
    • Russia is most likely to choose this (80%), with slightly lowered chance if FROM is a neighbour or Russia is in an alliance with them
  • Option 2: "Never mind, then!"
    • FROM receives a notification event (and +10 Prestige)
    • -20 Prestige
    • Russia loses the "Protector of Eastern Christendom" country modifier


The Treaty of ParisEdit

As in history, once the Crimean War has begun it's going to end with the Treaty of Paris. In PDM, however, there are two versions that depend on how the war turned out:

France's version of the Treaty of Paris:

  • Requirements:
    • for France only
    • the "crimea_has_happened" global flag has been set
    • Russia is not at war with the Ottoman Empire
    • Russia recently lost a war (meaning it has failed to enforce a wargoal or had a wargoal enforced on it in the last five years). This means that Russia can still do fairly well, but unless it has complete victory in the war this decision will be the result.
  • Effects:
    • +20 Prestige
    • If both Wallachia and Moldavia exists, then Wallachia will inherit Moldavia and turn into Romania
    • If Wallachia exists but Moldavia does not, then it turns into Romania
    • If Moldavia exists but Wallachia does not, then it turns into Romania
    • If the UK has the "england_protecting_interests" country flag, then it loses -50 diplomatic influence in the Ottoman Empire
    • If Russia owns Izmail (province id# 678), it receives the "Treaty of Paris" event (id# 97510)


Russia's version of the Treaty of Paris:

  • Requirements:
    • for Russia only
    • the "crimea_has_happened" global flag has been set
    • Russia is not at war with the Ottoman Empire
    • Russia has NOT recently lost a war (meaning it has not failed to enforce a wargoal or had a wargoal enforced on it in the last five years). This means that Russia can had complete victory in the Crimean War.
  • Effects:
    • +20 Prestige
    • If both Wallachia and Moldavia exists, then Wallachia will inherit Moldavia and turn into Romania
    • If Wallachia exists but Moldavia does not, then it turns into Romania
    • If Moldavia exists but Wallachia does not, then it turns into Romania
    • If Romania is a vassal of the Ottoman Empire, it is released (and any alliance is ended)
    • +400 relations with Romania
    • +200 diplomatic influence with Romania
    • +50 diplomatic influence with the Ottoman Empire
    • France loses -100 diplomatic influence with the Ottoman Empire
    • if the UK has the "england_protecting_interests" country flag, then it loses -100 diplomatic influence with the Ottoman Empire


The "Treaty of Paris" event (id #97510) for Russia, does the following:

  • Text: "The powers of Europe have met in Paris to settle the recent matter of the Crimean War. One of the provisions set out is that the newly-united Romanians would receive the Budjak in southern Bessarabia (also known as Izmail). Refusing would put us at odds with the rest of Europe and perhaps lead to further war. Accepting might repair some of our relations with Romania, but would definitely be a blow to our prestige and our interests in the region."
  • Option 1: "Give them Izmail."
    • -10 Prestige
    • Russia loses the "Protector of Eastern Christendom" country modifier
    • any owned province in the Moldavia region or Izmail itself is seceded to Romania
    • +200 relations with Romania
    • -8 militancy to all pops in Romania
  • Option 2: "Never! They will have to take it from us!"
    • -100 relations with Romania
    • +10 Infamy
    • any greater power who is either France, has the "england_protecting_interests" country flag or who has an alliance with the Ottoman Empire receives both a Free Peoples and Humiliate CB against Russia for 100 months


The main effect of giving Izmail to Romania is that it prompts the Romanian War of Independence event chain later on-- where Romania (if it is still a vassal of the Ottoman Empire) offers to return Izmail to Russia in return for their help in throwing off Ottoman control. Russia can also get Izmail back if the Congress of Berlin event chain fires and the Ottomans are not supported as a result of it.

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